Process Consultancy | HAZOP | HAZID | Risk Assessments


Hazard Identification (HAZID) and Hazard & Operability (HAZOP) Studies

Enquire about HAZOP & HAZID Consultancy
Hazard and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a structured and systematic technique for system examination and risk management.
It is based on a theory that assumes risk events are caused by deviations from design or operating intentions. Identification of such deviations is facilitated by using sets of “guide words” as a systematic list of deviation perspectives.
A Hazard Identification (HAZID) Study is the process of identifying hazards in order to plan for, avoid, or mitigate their impacts. The strategy and steps to follow is very similar to HAZOP technique but, different key words are used to carry out the analysis.
Our Process Safety Engineers have the relevant experience to perform those studies, analysing the elements of the process, deviations, possible causes and consequences. They will provide you also with the actions to be completed in order to reduce the risks.

A full report of the study will be issued underlining the following aspects:

  • Identification of the deviations through the guide words.
  • Documentation of consequences and causes.
  • Protection, detection and indicating mechanisms.
  • Actions and recommendations to follow to reduce risks.
  • Follow-up of the actions to be implemented.
  • Re-study of any part of the process if needed.


CMSE Consultancy consultants can act as competent persons to carry out an effective HAZOP analysis. Our consultants can provide an effective Hazard and Operability Analysis by:
  • Process expertise
  • Employing systematic procedures
  • A high quality hazard identification technique
  • Evaluating the extent and nature of the risk
  • Recommending appropriate protection measures


The benefits of a HAZOP are:
  • Safer plant
  • Greater process efficiency
  • Systematic Approach exposes hidden hazards
  • Helps the understanding of how a plant works and identifies operating problems
  • Can lead to fewer start-up problems on major projects

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    Process Safety Review including basis of safety reports

    Enquire about the Process Safety Review including basis of safety reports
    At CMSE Consultancy, our consultants will perform Process Safety Review for defined areas and activities within the plant. By carrying out an on-site walk-through inspection of the plant our Process Safety Engineers will identify possible lapses in safety procedures within the process.
    Moreover, an in-depth review will be used to ensure that the plant, as well as the operating and maintenance procedures, comply with the design intent and standards. The review will include interviews with employees working on the process plant as, including operators, managers and maintenance workers.
    Our professionals, will apply also other techniques, such as checklists and risk assessments to identify the additional bases of safety to implement in the process. In addition, they will audit and revise technical and organisational measures already in place as:

    • Management policy.
    • Attitudes training.
    • Features of both the process and design.
    • Layout and construction of the plant.
    • Operating procedures.
    • Emergency plans.
    • Personal protection standards
    • Accident records.
    Once the review will be performed, a report will be issued giving detail of existing control measures, basis of safety to be implemented, recommendations and actions required to achieve the highest standard level in process safety.
    A follow-up visit can then be performed to assess whether the recommendations have been performed to the required standard.

    Enquire about the Process Safety Review including basis of safety reports

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      Layer of Protection Analysis Study (LOPA)

      Enquire about the Layer of Protection Analysis Study (LOPA)
      LOPA is developed in response to a requirement within the process industry to be able to assess the adequacy of the layers of protection provided for an activity.
      Examples of layers of protection used in the LOPA study are:

      • Process
      • Process Design
      • Alarm, Operator Action
      • Automatic Action (Safety Instrumented System, Emergency Shutdown, Automatic Fire Suppression)
      • Active / Passive protection in place
      • Plant Emergency Response
      At CMSE Consultancy, we will estimate and evaluate the risk by defining all the existing layers of protection and also giving recommendations of basis of safety to be implemented.

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        Quantifiable & Qualitative Risk Assessment

        Enquire about Quantifiable & Qualitative Risk Assessment
        Our experienced consultants are proficient in the development and performance of multiple quantifiable and qualitative Risk Assessment techniques.

        Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA)

        Failure Mode & Effect Analysis is based on:
        • How severe is the effect on the customer?
        • How frequent is the cause likely to occur?
        • How probable is detection of the cause?
        • RPN = Risk priority number in order to rank concerns

        Systematic What If Technique (SWIFT) Study

        • The Structured What-If Technique (SWIFT) is a systematic team-oriented technique for hazard identification.
        • Developed to identify hazards in chemical process plants. It addresses systems and procedures at a high level.
        • SWIFT considers deviations from normal operations identified by brainstorming, with questions beginning “What if…?” or “How could…?”. The brainstorming is supported by checklists to help avoid overlooking hazards.

        Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) Study

        FTA is a top-down approach for analysing pre-event failures with systems in development, beginning with the top event (the potential failure), then determining all the ways it can occur. Similarly, post-event failures can be analysed to find the root cause of the failure.

        Event Tree Analysis (ETA) Study

        Event tree analysis (ETA) is an analysis technique for identifying and evaluating the sequence of events in a potential accident scenario following the occurrence of an initiating event.
        The objective of ETA is to determine whether the initiating event will develop into a serious accident or if the event is sufficiently controlled by the safety systems and procedures implemented in the system design.

        Cause-Consequences Analysis

        Cause-consequence analysis [Nielson 1975] combines the hazard identification and quantification methodology of Fault Tree Analysis with Event Tree Analysis. The technique can be scheduled in six stages:
        1) Select the event or type of accident
        2) Identify the safety functions that influence the course of the incident resulting from the event.
        3) Develop the accident path resulting from the event (ETA Study)
        4) Develop the initiating event and the safety function failure event to determine their basic causes (FTA Study)
        5) Evaluate the accident sequence minimal cut sets
        6) Document the results and detail possible recommendations.

        Maintenance and Operability study (MOP)

        Investigates the hazards related to the maintenance of plant items. The technique can be used to identify hazards, or poor design leading to hazards, during the maintenance of the various plant items. With MOP study, each process item is analysed by asking the following questions:
        – Can the equipment be properly isolated for maintenance?
        – Can the equipment be properly drained for maintenance?
        – Are there plans to deal with mechanical failure of equipment?
        – Are there plans for critical spare parts to be available?

        Task Analysis

        Task analysis is a systematic method for analysing a task in terms of its goals, operations and plans. The task is a set of operations/actions required to achieve a set goal.
        This technique takes into consideration the following data:
        – The general operating procedure including job descriptions, process diagrams, and operating manual.
        – Output from a hazard review.
        – Plant records.
        – A number of interviews with people who have experience of the process and plant.
        – Observations of the general operation of the plant.

        Task Analysis tries also to address some relevant questions as:
        – What actions do the operators perform?
        – How do operators respond to different cues in the environment?
        – What errors might be made and deviations caused in plant operations?
        – How any errors might be recovered, or any deviations be controlled?
        – How do operators plan their actions?

        Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA)

        PHEA allows complex tasks to be analysed in detail. The technique applies hierarchical task analysis to split the complex tasks into component parts. Assesses the consequences of the hazards. The technique examines the consequences of the human errors if they occur within the process.
        PHEA analyses the tasks systematically considering:
        – Task type
        – Error type
        – Task description
        – Consequences
        – Recovery
        – Error reduction strategy

        Our professionals will also carry out other quantitative and qualitative techniques such as:
        – Layer of Protection Analysis (LOPA) Study
        – Consequential Modelling Study
        – Checklists
        – Safety Audit

        Enquire about Quantifiable & Qualitative Risk Assessment

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          Static Survey Assessment

          Enquire about Static Survey Assessment

          Mitigate the possible effects of an explosion and fire hazard in your workplace by eliminating the ignition hazard posed by static discharges.

          Electrostatic discharges pose a significant ignition hazard when used with flammable substances (gas, vapour & dust) and can lead to fires and explosion.

          Static discharges can also pose an occupational personnel hazard, lead to electronic component failure and manufacturing product problems.

          Why you Should use CMSE Consultancy to  Manage your Static Generation Risk

          By carrying out an a thorough inspection of your plant and measuring electrostatic surface voltage measurements, our consultants will identify the sources of static generation and potential deficiencies or lack of controls that may lead to static generation.

          You will also receive a comprehensive report that will provide you with the details of:

          • Assessing your existing static control measures (engineering & organisational)
          • Reviewing the properties of the processes which may generate static
          • Measuring potential static generation voltages and calculating hypothetical MIE’s
          • Determining additional basis of safety that need to be implemented
          • Recommendations and actions required to prevent static generation in your workplace

          If you need help, assistance or interested in finding out more, please contact our Consultants; Gary Horgan [email protected] or Yolanda Gomez [email protected],ie for more information.


          Defining Electrostatic Discharge

          Electrostatic discharges is a generic term for sparks. All electrostatic sparks in air occur because the high potential (voltage) gradients across a charged surface is sufficiently high to ionise the air in its vicinity. This leads to a conducting path through the air across which the charge (spark) causing the potential gradient can transfer. Charge accumulation occurs when the rate of charge generation exceeds the rate of charge dissipation to earth. The hazard of charge accumulation usually increases with area volume.

          Determining the Conditions Required for Static Electricity to be a Source of Ignition

          • The rate of charge generation must exceed the rate of charge dissipation,
          • The effective energy must exceed the minimum ignition energy of the flammable atmosphere,
          • A static discharge must coincide with a flammable atmosphere,
          • A locally ignited flame must propagate in to the surrounding flammable atmosphere.

          Identifying the Types of Electrostatic Discharges

          • Spark discharges occur between two ungrounded and charged conductors. Minimum Ignition energy (MIE) ~ 100 mJ
          • Brush discharges occur between insulating material & conductor or two insulating. MIE < 3 – 4 mJ
          • Propagating brush discharges occur between two insulators. Energy dissipated can be very high. MIE >1000 mJ – it will ignite most of flammable atmospheres

          Determining What Exactly will be Measured

          At each test location the following is measured and recorded with a calibrated handheld +/- 2Kv Ultra High Impedance Electrostatic Voltmeter:

          • Polarity of static charge (positive or negative)
          • Electrostatic surface voltage (volts)
          • Max Voltage (volts)
          • Min Voltage (volts)
          • Ambient Temperature (°C)
          • Relative humidity (%)

          Enquire about Static Survey Assessment

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